Title: Sustainable Materialization of Residues from Thermal Processes into Sorbents
Other Titles: Duurzame omvorming van residuen van thermische processen in sorbenten
Authors: Chiang, Yi Wai
Issue Date: 23-May-2013
Abstract: Waste recycling and re-utilization are potentially favourable routes towards the development of environment-friendly, sustainable and cost effective processes. The primary focus of this doctoral research is to investigate the utilization of inorganic solid waste materials for the synthesis of sorbents using a waste-to-product valorization concept. The key objectives of this doctoral research project were: (i) identify potentially suitable industrial waste materials for valorization into sorbent materials; (ii) identify the target sorbent to be derived from each waste material, and devise appropriate sorbent synthesis/preparation routes; and (iii) identify contamination treatment and remediation opportunities, assess sorbent efficacy in these applications, at the innate pH levels of the medium, and develop strategies for performance optimization, field implementation and solution sustainability.For large-scale contamination remediation applications that target complex pollution problems, it is desirable to have a variety of sorbent materials available, which may be concurrently applied to achieve a complete solution. This aspect of applied environmental engineering is actively investigated in this work, in view of in-situ and ex-situ applications that include contaminated sediments, surface waters and industrial wastewaters. In particular, three classes of sorbent materials were targeted for synthesis: iron (hydro)oxides, hydroxyapatite, and zeolites. These were produced from select inorganic waste materials having suitable chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties for conversion into sorbents, including: municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes, drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), and steel slags. Sorptive materials were synthesized by hydrothermal conversion of MSWI bottom ashes (BA), which demonstrated promising sorption performance for heavy metal contaminants. Besides the conventional hydrothermal treatment route that requires strong alkaline solutions, it was also shown that the intrinsic composition and alkalinity of MSWI-BA, coupled to its meta-stable mineralogy that naturally contribute to mineral alterations over time, can be leveraged for the production of sorbent materials in an atom-efficient manner in the absence of harsh and expensive chemical additives.Another promising sorbent material uncovered during this research project were the inherently-formed water treatment residuals (WTRs), which were for the first time tested and confirmed as a suitable sorbent for heavy metal adsorption. This sorbent material was further tested for the treatment of industrial wastewater for phosphate removal, which constitutes an attractive example of industrial symbiosis, where a waste product from one industry is used to remediate the waste stream of another neighbouring industry.Besides chemical and geochemical routes to sorbent preparation, an innovative biotechnological approach, bioleaching, was investigated in this work. Positive results with respect to increasedsolubilisation of metal components, alteration of basicity, mineralogy and morphology of solid materials, and augmentation of specific surface area were induced through bioleaching, and this technology shows promising opportunities for further research and development.Finally, a framework was proposed for selection of optimal sorbent mixtures for complex sediment remediation problems. It encompasses a complete set of methods and strategies, which proved useful for finding effective sorbent mixtures for the Bankei case study investigated during this project. Its application led to a systematic and well structured research and development program, which delivered the required results with sufficient level of detail and confidence. The proposed strategies can contribute to the sustainable environmental management of heavy metal contaminated sites.
Table of Contents: Table of Contents
Foreword i
Abstract iii
Samenvatting v
Abbreviations and Symbols vii
List of Publications viii
Introduction 1
Chapter 1. State of Art on Sorbents and Heavy Metals 7
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Heavy Metal Contaminants 10
2.3 Adsorbents 13
2.4 Research Direction 23
Bibliography 25
Chapter 2. Synthesis of zeolitic-type adsorbent material from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and its application in heavy metal adsorption 29
Chapter 3. An atom-efficient route for converting incineration ashes into heavy-metal sorbents 39
Chapter 4. Adsorption of multi-heavy metals onto water treatment residuals: sorption capacities and applications 49
Supplementary Content 62
Chapter 5. Effects of bioleaching on the chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties of natural and waste-derived alkaline materials 65
Chapter 6. Waste Derived Sorbents and Their Potential Applications 77
Part A 77
Part B 85
Part C 95
Conclusions and Perspectives 109
Conclusions 111
Perspectives 113
ISBN: 978-90-8826-306-4
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Microbial and Molecular Systems - miscellaneous
Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis
Division of Geology
Technologiecluster Bioengineering Technologie
Bioengineering Technology TC, Campus Bruges
Research Centre for Economics and Corporate Sustainability, Campus Brussels
Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB) - miscellaneous

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