Infection, Genetics and Evolution vol:19 pages:395-402
In 2009 the World Health Organization recommended the use of group A rotavirus (RVA) vaccines in all national immunization programs (NIPs) in order to control severe RVA gastroenteritis disease. In Brazil, Rotarix™ was introduced in the NIP in March 2006, and a significant reduction in mortality rates among children ⩽5years old was observed, especially in the Northern and Northeastern Brazil. In the current study the 11 gene segments of six Brazilian G1P RVA strains, isolated in 2009 and 2010 from vaccinated children, were analyzed in order to investigate if the genetic composition of these strains might help to elucidate why they were able to cause acute gastroenteritis in vaccinated children. All six Brazilian RVA strains revealed a complete Wa-like genotype constellation: G1-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all six strains were nearly identical and showed a close genetic relationship with contemporary typical human Wa-like RVA strains. These results suggests that the fact that these strains were able to cause acute gastroenteritis in vaccinated children is likely not due to the genetic background of the strains, but rather to other factors such as host relating factors, co-infecting pathogens or vaccine efficacy. P RVA strains are detected rather occasionally in humans in most regions of the world, except for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. However, recently two studies conducted in Brazil showed the circulation of G12P and G2P. This is the first report on the detection and complete genome analyses of G1P RVA strains in Brazil. Surveillance studies will be crucial to further investigate the prevalence of this genotype in the Brazilian population, and the efficacy of current licensed vaccines, which do not contain the P genotype.