Pollen spectra of 23 Cundill pollen traps from 23 different sampling sites in Southwest Turkey are compared with the corresponding pollen spectra of moss cushions from the same sites. The Cundill pollen traps represent the modern pollen rain data from one year whereas the moss cushions represent the pollen rain of several years. The comparative study reveals some main differences between the two pollen entrapment media. The one-year entrapment medium (pollen trap) appears to be more sensitive for local (releve area 10 x 10 m) and regional (100-500 m, or a few kilometres for Olea europaea) vegetation. Pollen spectra of moss cushions are dominated by high pine pollen percentage values and hardly sense line vegetation structures. The conclusion of this comparative modern pollen study allows to interpret fossil sediment spectra from the Near East in a more critical way. It is concluded that one should preferably sample rapidly deposited sediments for palynological analyses, as the resulting high-resolution pollen diagrams will br most informative about the former vegetation patterns.