Successful actions and interactions in the complex environments we inhabit entail making fast and optimal perceptual decisions. Extracting the key features from our sensory experiences and deciding how to interpret them is a computationally challenging task that is far from understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain may solve this challenge by combining sensory information and previous knowledge about the environment acquired through evolution, development, and everyday experience. Here, we review the role of visual learning and experience-dependent plasticity in shaping decisions. We propose that learning plays an important role in translating sensory experiences to decisions and actions by shaping neural representations across cortical circuits in a task-dependent manner.