IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games vol:5 issue:2 pages:100-110
We introduce a game in which the player navigates an avatar through a maze by using a brain-computer interface (BCI) that analyzes the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) on the players scalp. The four command control game, called The Maze was specifically designed around a SSVEP BCI and validated in several EEG set-ups when using a traditional electrode cap with relocatable electrodes and a consumer-grade headset with fixed electrodes (Emotiv EPOC). We experimentally derive the parameter values that provide an acceptable trade-off between accuracy of game control and interactivity, and evaluate the control provided by the BCI during gameplay. As a final step in the validation of the game, a population study on a broad audience was conducted with the EPOC headset in a real-world setting. The study revealed that the majority (85%) of the players enjoyed the game despite of its intricate control (mean accuracy 80.37%, mean mission time ratio 0.90). We also discuss what to take into account while designing BCI-based games.