This article investigates the potential of multilevel confirmatory factor analysis compared to using conventional confirmatory factor analysis, as regards the construction of measures for school process variables within educational effectiveness research. Since both techniques have not been systematically compared within educational research, we propose to contrast several aspects: factor structure, pattern of factor loadings, communalities of the indicators, variance extracted by the factors, internal consistency of the factors, and inter-factor correlations. To this end, teacher questionnaire data are used to construct measures for school process variables. Our results show no substantial differences when comparing both techniques at the teacher level. However, when contrasting the different levels within the more complex technique, we notice a fairly large discrepancy between the teacher-level results and the school-level results.