Postoperative neurological sequelae in patients that have received epidural anaesthesia are not necessarily caused by the epidural anaesthetic technique. As a whale, adverse neurological outcomes following epidural anaesthesia may be subdivided into 3 different ethiological categories. A first category involves events that are not at all caused by the epidural, but merely due to the interference of anaesthesia and/or surgery with a preexisting medical condition. A second category includes mishaps such as backache, arachnoiditis, and post-dural puncture headache that are solely due to the epidural anaesthesia. Finally epidural anaesthesia may be a contributory factor in the development of post-anaesthetic complications attributable to a pre-existing medical condition that are triggered by anaesthesia, surgery or childbirth. These complications include some of the most dramatic sequelae of major neuraxial blockade, such as spinal epidural abscess, spinal infarction,and spinal hematoma. Although extremely rare, the latter complications often result in permanent major neurological deficits. The present manuscript is a review of the most recent, literature addressing post-anaesthetic sequelae,and will discuss their incidence, pathophysiology, clinical course, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.