One of the deepest sources of poetics of the poem 'Dead souls', undoubtedly, is the folklore. The most important character of poetics of the 'Dead Souls' is connected, first of all, with the three most ancient genres, which were named by Gogol the 'constitutional keys' of Russian poetry. The first of them is the folk song, the second is the proverb, the third is the word of Russian church pastors. In 'Dead souls' the idea of the native land is not expressed by the author in concepts, but by the images, most important of which is the Russian song which symbolizes Russia. The songs are one of the three sources of the originality of Russian poetry, from which Russian poets must draw inspiration. It is not accidental that the aesthetics of the writer is based in these songs. The song-epic motive is characteristic for the entire poem, which is expressed in the characters, epithets, hyperbolas and comparisons. Gogol found the most true expression of the human soul in folk songs. In these songs resound the trouble and happiness of the nation, their suffering and heroic nature of their character. The fates of peasants, depicted in the seventh chapter, are taken by the author from folk songs of Russian robbers, coachmen, barge-hauler, vagabonds. Gogol creatively approached the folk song tradition. In the song about Kopeykine he brilliantly expresses and recognizes the 'element' of Russian national character. Speaking in his words, 'he develops it and arises above the original, as a musical genius who from simply, hearing of a song on the street creates whole poem'.