Simultaneous electroencephalographic recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging during pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rat
Van Camp, Nadja × D'Hooge, Rudi Verhoye, M Peeters, RR De Deyn, PP Van der Linden, A #
Academic press inc elsevier science
Neuroimage vol:19 issue:3 pages:627-636
Truly simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were registered in curarized rats injected with convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 65 mg/kg, sc). Rigorous control of physiological parameters like body temperature and ventilation with control of blood gasses helped to avoid potential interference between systemic parameters, and central PTZ-induced blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI recordings demonstrated progressive epileptiform EEG discharges with concomitant BOLD changes, the latter gradually affecting most of the fore- and midbrain. Approximately 15 min after PTZ injection. the first BOLD contrast changes mainly occurred in neocortex, and coincided with the first minor EEG alterations. Most regions that displayed BOLD changes were regions with reportedly high GABA, receptor densities. Full-blown epileptiform discharges occurred oil the EEG tracing. approximately 30 min after PTZ injection, and coincided with bilateral positive and/or negative BOLD contrast changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Behavioral observations demonstrated the first of several generalized clonic or clonic-tonic seizure episodes to occur also around this time. Approximately 90 min after injection, the electrographic paroxysms gradually decreased in amplitude and duration. whereas the BOLD signal changes still extended with alternating positive and negative traces, and spread to subcortical regions like caudate-putamen and globus pallidus. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.