School Effectiveness and School Improvement vol:11 issue:2 pages:165-196
In this article, effects of schools, teaching staff and classes on achievement and on the well-being of pupils at the end of their first grade in secondary education in Belgium are explored by means of multilevel analysis. Our study affirms that the relative influence of classes and schools on achievement is much higher than on well-being. We find that schools and classes have main and interaction effects on both outcomes. However, the interaction effects on well-being are limited to a few class-pupil interactions. Our results indicate that achievement and well-being can be considered as two different, distinctive school and class outcomes and that the school characteristics investigated act differently on these outcomes. Some school characteristics are always effective independent of the outcome criterium, while the effectiveness of other school characteristics depends on the criterium considered.