Riboswitches are functional RNA molecules that control gene expression through conformational changes in response to small-molecule ligand binding. In addition, riboswitch 3D structure, like that of other RNA molecules, is dependent on cation-RNA interactions as the RNA backbone is highly negatively charged. Here, we show how small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to probe RNA conformations as a function of ligand and ion concentration. In a recent study of a glycine-binding tandem aptamer from Vibrio cholerae, we have used SAXS data and thermodynamic modeling to investigate how Mg(2+)-dependent folding and glycine binding are energetically coupled. In addition, we have employed ab initio shape reconstruction algorithms to obtain low-resolution models of the riboswitch structure from SAXS data under different solution conditions.