Title: The Kipushi Cu–Zn deposit (DR Congo) and its host rocks: A petrographical, stable isotope (O, C) and radiogenic isotope (Sr, Nd) study
Authors: Van Wilderode, Jorik ×
Heijlen, W
De Muynck, David
Schneider, Jens
Vanhaecke, F
Muchez, Philippe #
Issue Date: Dec-2013
Publisher: Pergamon - Elsevier Science Ltd
Series Title: Journal of African Earth Sciences vol:79 pages:143-156
Abstract: Near the city of Kipushi, located in the southern part of the Central African Copperbelt, a major vein-type Cu–Zn ore deposit occurs. A combination of petrographic techniques and both stable (O, C) and radiogenic (Sr, Nd) isotope analysis is used to investigate the influence of the mineralisation on the Neoproterozoic dolomite host rocks. A quantification of the abundance and size of the different host rock constituents (dolomite types, quartz, phyllosilicates) revealed a lithostratigraphical controlled variation, without trends towards the ore body. The bulk oxygen isotopic composition of the host rock varies between
2.54‰and 9.64‰V-PDB, with most values within the range of Neoproterozoic marine dolomite. Samples with more positive d18O all originate from the same stratigraphic interval and are interpreted as the result of reflux dolomitisation by an evaporated brine. Few samples with depleted d18O signatures could indicate the influence of a depleted or high temperature fluid, but are not related to the ore deposit. Moreover, the presence of the ore body cannot be traced through the host rock oxygen isotopic composition.
d18O of gangue dolomite is significantly depleted in comparison with the host rocks and ranges between 7.67‰ and 12.46‰ V-PDB. For an estimated mineralisation temperature of 310 C, this implies a d18Ofluid between 10.7‰and 15.6‰V-SMOW. This is a significant enrichment compared to Neoproterozoic seawater, indicating that the mineralising fluid underwent significant fluid–rock interactions.
d13C of both host rock and gangue dolomite are in range of Neoproterozoic marine dolomites. However, a limited stratigraphic interval has clearly more negative d13C signatures, due to in situ maturation of carbonaceous material. At the time of mineralisation (450 Ma), the host rock dolomite has a strontium isotopic composition partly more radiogenic than Neoproterozoic marine carbonates
(0.70793 < 87Sr/86Sr < 0.71167). Nevertheless, the signatures show no relation to the ore body. The gangue
dolomite is significantly more radiogenic (0.71061 < 87Sr/86Sr < 0.71332) than the host rock. The radiogenic signature may be due to the interaction of formational and mineralising fluids with Neoproterozoic siliciclastic-rich dolomites, e.g. the top the Kakontwe Supérieur which has 87Sr/86Sr values up to 0.72575 at 450 Ma. Alternatively, the mineralising fluid could have interacted with basement rocks. According to eNd450 values between 5.4 and 0.9 for gangue dolomites, this basement was mafic in nature.
However, mafic rocks also occur in the Roan Group near the Kipushi deposit. Taken into account previous fluid inclusion data, the mineralising fluid most likely derived metals both from mafic and felsic basement units and possibly interacted with Roan rocks.
ISSN: 1464-343X
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Division of Geology
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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