ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is involved in the retrograde trafficking of Golgi components, thereby affecting the localization of Golgi glycosyltransferases. Deficiency of a COG-subunit leads to defective protein glycosylation, and thus Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). Mutations in subunits 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 have been associated with CDG-II. The first patient with COG5-CDG was recently described (Paesold-Burda et al. Hum Mol Genet 2009; 18:4350--6). Contrary to most other COG-CDG cases, the patient presented a mild/moderate phenotype, i.e. moderate psychomotor retardation with language delay, truncal ataxia and slight hypotonia. METHODS: CDG-IIx patients from our database were screened for mutations in COG5. Clinical data were compared. Brefeldin A treatment of fibroblasts and immunoblotting experiments were performed to support the diagnosis.Results and conclusion: We identified five new patients with proven COG5 deficiency. We conclude that the clinical picture is not always as mild as previously described. It rather comprises a broad spectrum with phenotypes ranging from mild to very severe. Interestingly, on a clinical basis some of the patients present a significant overlap with COG7-CDG, a finding which can probably be explained by subunit interactions at the protein level.