The first and principal aim of the preclinical care of polytraumatized patients is preserving life through the restoration of respiration and circulation. Following this, the external hemorrhages should be treated. Early reduction of closed and open fractures relieves the pressure on the skin and surrounding soft tissues and prevents secondary transport-damage. Immobilization of the fractures, together with the proximal and the distal joints in a pneumatic splint, is carried out before transport. During the clinical phase, the operative stabilization of the fractures follows reanimation and life-saving operations. Primary treatment is performed as far as possible, because it reduces late death due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. In case of several fractures, an order of treatment is set up: fractures with an arterial lesion, second or third-degree open fractures and fractures with an impending compartment syndrome are the most urgent. The principles of fracture treatment in elective surgery are also valid for emergency osteosynthesis, but the choice of the fixation-device can be different. The external fixation is the first-choice treatment for fractures of the lower leg, while plate osteosynthesis is preferred for femur and humerus.