Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde vol:105 issue:11 pages:423-6
In the craniofacial complex there appears to be a sexual dimorphism: men and women not only differ during the 'active growth' period for the timing, amount and localization of growth, but also in the non-active phase thereafter gender differences in facial morphology remain present. In the active growth phase, girls reach their final facial dimensions earlier than boys and boys have larger final facial dimensions than girls. The specific differences in the lateral view of the face are situated in the eminent supraorbital sinus and nose, a larger occipital condyle and mastoid process. In the frontal view, boys show a larger prominence of the zygomatic bones and the gonial region than girls. As far as the 'non-active growth' changes in adulthood are concerned, the differences between men and women are smaller, but consistent and significant. Women have smaller faces (5-9% difference) but there are now configurational differences that appear in the pattern of growth. While men maintain their vertical growth pattern from puberty, women change from a horizontal to a vertical growth pattern during adulthood.