The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cationic ion channels includes proteins involved in the transduction of several physical and chemical stimuli to finely tune physiological functions. In the urinary bladder, they are highly expressed in, but not restricted to, primary afferent neurons. The urothelium and some interstitial cells also express several TRP channels. In this review, we describe the expression and the known roles of some members of TRP subfamilies, namely TRPV, TRPM and TRPA, in the urinary bladder. The therapeutic interest of modulating the activity of TRP channels to treat bladder dysfunctions is also discussed.