Cripto regulates skeletal muscle regeneration and modulates satellite cell determination by antagonizing myostatin
Guardiola, Ombretta × Lafuste, Peggy Brunelli, Silvia Iaconis, Salvatore Touvier, Thierry Mourikis, Philippos De Bock, Katrien Lonardo, Enza Andolfi, Gennaro Bouché, Ann Liguori, Giovanna L Shen, Michael M Tajbakhsh, Shahragim Cossu, Giulio Carmeliet, Peter Minchiotti, Gabriella #
National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol:109 issue:47 pages:3231-3240
Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying satellite cell activation is still largely undefined. Here, we show that Cripto, a regulator of early embryogenesis, is a novel regulator of muscle regeneration and satellite cell progression toward the myogenic lineage. Conditional inactivation of cripto in adult satellite cells compromises skeletal muscle regeneration, whereas gain of function of Cripto accelerates regeneration, leading to muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, we provide evidence that Cripto modulates myogenic cell determination and promotes proliferation by antagonizing the TGF-β ligand myostatin. Our data provide unique insights into the molecular and cellular basis of Cripto activity in skeletal muscle regeneration and raise previously undescribed implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.