Expert Review of Proteomics vol:9 issue:4 pages:451-466
Platelets are the fundamental players in primary hemostasis, but are also involved in several pathological conditions. The remarkable advances in proteomic methodologies have allowed a better understanding of the basic physiological pathways underlying platelet biology. In addition, recent platelet proteomics focused on disease conditions, helping to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of complex and/or unknown human disorders and to find novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and drug targets. The most common and innovative proteomic techniques, both gel-based and gel-free, used in platelet proteomics will be reviewed here. A particular focus will be given to studies that used a subproteomic strategy to analyze specific platelet conditions (resting or activated), compartments (membrane, granules and microparticles) or fractions (phosphoproteome or glycoproteome). The thousands of platelet proteins and interactions discovered so far by these different powerful proteomic approaches represent a precious source of information for both basic science and clinical applications in the field of platelet biology.