In today's volatile business environments, collaboration between information systems, both within and across company borders, has become essential to success. Developing such collaborative applications and building the supporting information systems poses several engineering challenges. A key challenge is to manage the ever growing design complexity. State of the art solutions, however, often lack proper abstractions for modeling collaborations at architectural level or do not reify these abstractions at detailed design and implementation level. Developers, on the other hand, rely on middleware, business process management, and Web services, techniques that mainly focus on low-level infrastructure.
Macodo addresses the problem of managing the design complexity of collaborative applications with three contributions: (1) a set of abstractions for modeling dynamic collaborations, (2) a set of architectural views, the main contribution of this paper, that reify these abstractions at architectural level, and (3) a proof of concept middleware infrastructure that supports the architectural abstractions at design and implementation level. In this document, we report on an empirical study that evaluates the main contribution of Macodo, the architectural views. The study is performed with 67 final year students of a Master in Software Engineering program from a university in Sweden and 2 universities in Ukraine. Results show that the use of Macodo~can reduce fault density and design complexity, and improve reuse and productivity.