Title: Ethics Instruction in Thai Primary Schools: A case study in the Reform of Thai Education from 1871 to 1970
Authors: Singhsa, Kanchana; M0231321
Issue Date: 29-Oct-2012
Abstract: Ethics Instruction in Thai Primary Schools:A case study in the Reform of Thai Education from 1871 to 1970By Clara Kanchana Singhsa Supervisor: Dr. Marc DepaepeThis research project focuses on a century of educational reform in the Thai educational curricula, from 1871 to 1970. Specifically, it discusses the implications and impacts of the various educational policy reforms of this period towards the modernization of the country’s educational system. This project argues, through an in-depth analysis of a number of forward-looking governmental policy approaches undertaken during the reform era that the reform initiatives represented the Thai government’s responses to the need of the times for genuine national development through the auspices of a modernized primary educational system. These reforms were expected to result in all round development and economic emancipation of the country. Remaining true, the traditional Thai culture as well as religious ethos, ethics and moral as well as religious values were expected to form the main undercurrent of all such advancements, as is seen in the various policy enactments. However, it is argued that modernized educational curricula on Ethics Instructions that should have held the keys to the attainment of high standards for the people and a genuine national development failed to a great extend in practical spheres. The emphasis on the subject of Ethics Instructions in primary schools as a typical case study becomes relevant in this context. It was the hope of the various governments of the reform period that the delivery of improved educational curricula in Thai primary schools would promote an attitude and culture of moral consciousness among the school going population of the country, as well as open the corridors to genuine human and national development. This was based on the fact that Buddhism was recognized as the country’s national religion, whose doctrines formed the pillars of the nation’s moral base. Dreams always don’t come true as is wished, yet whatever is realised adds momentum to look further ahead. Despite of many difficulties it faced, no doubt that the Thai education reforms that took Ethics instructions as its central pillar did achieve a great amount of success. And this Research project explores various aspects such as the educational aids, challenges and problems faced during the educational reform with a view to better planning and implementing future efforts, not only at the national levels, but even at the community/parochial and local levels.<w:latentstyles < semihidden="false" priority="0" locked="false" <w:lsdexception
Table of Contents: Table of Content
Abstract i
Table of Content iv
List of Picture and Figure xii
General Introduction 1
The Push for the Modernisation of the Thai Educational System 1
Research Motivation 4
Key Research Question 5
Research Hypothesis 6
Research Structure 6
Research Methodology 9
Sources of Data 10
Period of Research 11
Education and Ethics Instruction 13
Brief Historiographical Survey 16
Chapter Two 18
Thai Education and Ethics Instruction during the Pre-reform Era (1238-1871) 18
Introduction 18
Thailand in Brief 18
Country and People 18
Impact of Buddhism 21
Religious Identity as National Identity 24
Cultural Factors 25
Education 28
Education and Ethics Instruction in Siam before 1871 30
Buddhism and Ethics Instruction in the pre-reform era 33
Sukhothai Era (1238-1376): Buddhism arrival and Preaching 34
Ayutthaya Era (1350-1767): Life and Learning in Monasteries 38
Thonburi and Early Rattanakosin Era (1767-1871): Learning in the new Capitals 42
Educational Empowerment 43
Influences and the Need for Reform 46
Conclusion 48
Chapter Three 50
Building Siam (Thai) Education for the 20th Century (1871-1910) 50
Introduction 50
Historical Background 50
Primary School Education as Learners’ Beacon of Empowerment 55
Key Educational Reforms of the Foundation Era 57
The first Thai primary school 58
Beginning of the Education Department 60
Policy of Education for National Development 66
Ethics Instruction as the Soul of the Nation’s Moral Sensitization 73
Conclusion 76
Chapter Four 77
Educational Growth of Primary Education in the Expansion Era (1910-1970) 77
Introduction 77
Historical Background 78
Key Curricula Reforms (1910-1970) 83
Increased Investment in Primary School Education 83
Types of Primary Schools 89
Government primary schools 90
Private primary school 91
Categories of Primary Schools 92
Lower Primary Schools 93
Upper Primary Schools 93
The New Ministry of Dhammakarn 93
Marriage of Compromise 99
Conclusion 103
Chapter Five 105
Curricula Contents of Ethics Instruction during 1871-1970 105
Introduction 105
The Concept of Educational Curricula 106
Primary Curricula and Ethics Instruction during 1871-1970 110
Ethics Instruction as the Backbone of the Reformed Thai Nation 111
Curricula Contents 113
Major Curricula 114
Civic Duty (Thai: Nathi-polamuang) 114
Morality (Thai: Sila-dhamma) 116
Related Curricula 119
Language 119
Composition 121
Reading 122
Writing 123
Agriculture 124
Mathematics (Arithmetic) 127
Physical Education 128
Handicrafts 129
Boy Scout & Red Cross Schemes 129
Key Objectives of the Educational Curricula 131
Moral formation 131
Intellectual Empowerment 132
Physical Development 134
Administrative and Political Training 135
Social Skills Acquisition 136
Health Education 138
Conclusion 140
Chapter Six 141
Methods of Ethics Instruction in Primary Schools during the Educational Reform Period (1871-1970) 141
Introduction 141
Building the Future through the Classroom 142
Methods of classroom education in Ethics Instruction 144
The telling method 145
Revision or recitation method 147
Lecture method 150
Showing method 152
The Exercising method 154
Modern Technology and the 20th century Thai Classroom 156
Conclusion 159
Chapter Seven 160
Classroom Educational Aids 160
Introduction 160
Defining Educational Aid 161
The Thai Primary School: An Overview 163
Discipline 164
School Uniforms 165
The School Day 166
Family Names 167
School Structures and Funding 168
School Prayers 169
Games and Sports 170
School Administration 171
School Age 172
Classroom Teaching and Learning Aids 172
Classroom Textbooks 173
Exercise books 176
Notebooks 177
Tables and chairs 178
Chalkboards 179
Pieces of Chalk 180
Blackboard Dusters 181
First aid boxes 182
Class Photos 182
Graphic Illustrations 183
Pens and Pencils 184
Drawing Books 185
Religious Paintings 187
Attendance Registers 187
Wall Charts 188
Natural Objects 189
Farm Implements 190
Official Diaries 191
School Bells 192
Historical Photographs 193
Lesson Notes 195
Conclusion 196
Chapter Eight 199
Challenges and Problems faced by the Educational Reform Project 199
Introduction 199
Wars and Cross Border Conflicts 200
The Thai Military Revolution 203
Finance 206
Educational Infrastructure 211
Teacher-improvisation 213
Teaching and Learning Facilities 215
Indigenous Thai Cultures 217
Religion 220
Politics and incessant Change of Governance 222
Conclusion 224
Chapter Nine 225
Writing New Pages of the Thai History 225
Introduction 225
Program of Compulsory Primary School Education 226
Education as the Key to National Development 230
Increased Investment in Teacher’s Training 233
Modernized Administration of the Education Sector 236
Program of Long Distance Education 241
Radio Networks and Postal Services 242
Television Programs 244
Print Media 246
Satellite Educational Outreaches 247
Community Learning Centers 249
Public Libraries 250
Mobile Educational Service Units 251
Science Education Centers 252
Local Guru or Local Wisdom Centers 253
Modernized Agricultural Practices 254
New Attitudes to Female Education 256
Moral Sensitization of Thai Citizenry and Long Term Results of Reformation 262
The Textbooks Publications Industry 265
Conclusion 271
General Conclusion 272
Bibliography 276
Explanation of Key Terms 299
Participants/Interviewees 300
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Education, Culture and Society
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Campus Kulak Kortrijk – miscellaneous

Files in This Item:
File Description Status SizeFormat
Ethics Instruction - Kanchana Singhsa 2012.pdf Published 2482KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Ethics Instruction - Kanchana Singhsa 2012.pdf Published 2482KbAdobe PDFView/Open Request a copy

These files are only available to some KU Leuven Association staff members


All items in Lirias are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.