Infection, Genetics and Evolution vol:7 issue:3 pages:374-381
To further unravel intra- and interspecies PTLV-1 evolution in Asia and Africa, we phylogenetically analysed 15 new STLV-1 LTR and env sequences discovered in eight different Asian and African non-human primate species. We show that orang-utan STLV-1s form a tight, deeply branching monophyletic cluster between Asian STLV-1 macaque species clades, suggesting natural cross-species transmission. Novel viruses of Macaca maura, Macaca nigra and siamang cluster with other Sulawesian STLV-1s, demonstrating close relatedness among the STLV-1s in these insular species and suggesting cross-species transmission to a siamang in captivity. Viruses from Western chimpanzees and a Western lowland gorilla cluster within the HTLV-lb/STLV-1 clade, the latter close to a human strain, indicative of zoonosis. A new STLV-1 from Cercopithecus ascanius differs from the published STLV-Cas57, explainable by the existence of five geographically separated subspecies. Barbary macaques, not yet described to be STLV-infected, carry a relatively recent acquired, typical African STLV-1, giving us no clue on the phylogeographical origin of PTLV-1.