Journal of Immunological Methods vol:174 issue:1-2 pages:237-47
Phagocyte recruitment is an important immunological phenomenon in inflammation and cancer. A large family of selective chemotactic cytokines, designated chemokines, has recently emerged. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is the prototype of such neutrophil activating factors, whereas MCP-1 is a well studied monocyte chemotactic protein. In vitro chemotactic assays were used to isolate and identify natural chemokines from mononuclear phagocytes and tumor cells. Additional new chemotactic proteins (MCP-2, MCP-3) attracting monocytes were also discovered by these methods. All chemokines are structurally related and show affinity for heparin. MCP-1, -2 and -3 have a comparable specific activity in monocyte chemotaxis assays. Specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays for MCP-1 and IL-8 were developed to study the regulation of their secretion by leukocytes. Monocytes or monocyte tumor cells produce MCP-1 and/or IL-8 in response to cytokines, virus, double stranded RNA, bacterial endotoxin, mitogen or phorbol ester. Granulocytes were found to secrete only minor amounts of MCP-1 and IL-8.