IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy vol:4 issue:1 pages:182-191
This paper investigates the potential of using battery energy storage systems in the public low-voltage distribution grid, to defer upgrades needed to increase the penetration of photovoltaics (PV). A multiobjective optimization method is proposed to visualize the trade-offs between three objective functions: voltage regulation, peak power reduction, and annual cost. The method is applied to a near-future scenario, based on a real residential feeder. The results provide insight into the dimensioning and the required specifications of the battery and the inverter. It is found that an inverter without batteries already achieves part of the objectives. Therefore, the added value of batteries to an inverter is discussed. Furthermore, a comparison between lithium–ion and lead–acid battery technologies is presented.