ITEM METADATA RECORD
Title: Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
Authors: Klionsky, Daniel J ×
Abdalla, Fabio C
Abeliovich, Hagai
Abraham, Robert T
Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham
Adeli, Khosrow
Agholme, Lotta
Agnello, Maria
Agostinis, Patrizia
Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A
Ahn, Hyung Jun
van Grunsven, Leo A
Ozpolat, Bulent
Paganetti, Paolo
Pagnini, Ugo
Pallet, Nicolas
Palmer, Glen E
Palumbo, Camilla
Pan, Tianhong
Brady, Nathan R
Panaretakis, Theocharis
Pandey, Udai Bhan
Vandenabeele, Peter
Papackova, Zuzana
Papassideri, Issidora
Paris, Irmgard
Park, Junsoo
Park, Ohkmae K
Parys, Jan
Parzych, Katherine R
Patschan, Susann
Brancolini, Claudio
Patterson, Cam
Vandenberghe, Wim
Pattingre, Sophie
Pawelek, John M
Peng, Jianxin
Perlmutter, David H
Perrotta, Ida
Perry, George
Pervaiz, Shazib
Peters, Godefridus J
Petersen, Morten
Brech, Andreas
Vanhorebeek, Ilse
Petrovski, Goran
Phang, James M
Piacentini, Mauro
Pierre, Philippe
Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie
Pierron, Gérard
Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit
Piras, Antonio
Piri, Natik
Platanias, Leonidas C
Vaquero, Eva C
Brenman, Jay E
Pöggeler, Stefanie
Poirot, Marc
Poletti, Angelo
Poüs, Christian
Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes
Prætorius-Ibba, Mette
Prasad, Anil
Prescott, Mark
Priault, Muriel
Velasco, Guillermo
Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie
Brennand, Ana
Progulske-Fox, Ann
Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula
Przedborski, Serge
Przyklenk, Karin
Puertollano, Rosa
Puyal, Julien
Qian, Shu-Bing
Qin, Liang
Vellai, Tibor
Qin, Zheng-Hong
Quaggin, Susan E
Bresnick, Emery H
Raben, Nina
Rabinowich, Hannah
Rabkin, Simon W
Rahman, Irfan
Rami, Abdelhaq
Ramm, Georg
Randall, Glenn
Vicencio, Jose Miguel
Randow, Felix
Rao, V Ashutosh
Rathmell, Jeffrey C
Brest, Patrick
Ravikumar, Brinda
Ray, Swapan K
Reed, Bruce H
Reed, John C
Reggiori, Fulvio
Régnier-Vigouroux, Anne
Vierstra, Richard D
Reichert, Andreas S
Reiners, John J
Reiter, Russel J
Ren, Jun
Bridges, Dave
Revuelta, José L
Rhodes, Christopher J
Ritis, Konstantinos
Rizzo, Elizete
Robbins, Jeffrey
Vila, Miquel
Roberge, Michel
Roca, Hernan
Roccheri, Maria C
Rocchi, Stephane
Rodemann, H Peter
Bristol, Molly L
Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago
Rohrer, Bärbel
Roninson, Igor B
Rosen, Kirill
Buzgariu, Wanda
Camougrand, Nadine
Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M
Rouis, Mustapha
Rouschop, Kasper M A
Rovetta, Francesca
Rubin, Brian P
Rubinsztein, David C
Brookes, Paul S
Ruckdeschel, Klaus
Rucker, Edmund B
Rudich, Assaf
Vindis, Cécile
Rudolf, Emil
Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson
Russo, Rossella
Rusten, Tor Erik
Ryan, Kevin M
Ryter, Stefan W
Sabatini, David M
Brown, Eric J
Sadoshima, Junichi
Saha, Tapas
Viola, Giampietro
Saitoh, Tatsuya
Sakagami, Hiroshi
Sakai, Yasuyoshi
Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini
Salomoni, Paolo
Salvaterra, Paul M
Salvesen, Guy
Salvioli, Rosa
Brumell, John H
Sanchez, Anthony M J
Viscomi, Maria Teresa
Sánchez-Alcázar, José A
Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo
Sandri, Marco
Sankar, Uma
Sansanwal, Poonam
Santambrogio, Laura
Saran, Shweta
Sarkar, Sovan
Sarwal, Minnie
Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola
Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V
Sasakawa, Chihiro
Sasnauskiene, Ausra
Sass, Miklós
Sato, Ken
Sato, Miyuki
Schapira, Anthony H V
Scharl, Michael
Schätzl, Hermann M
Scheper, Wiep
Schiaffino, Stefano
von Haefen, Clarissa
Brunk, Ulf T
Schneider, Claudio
Schneider, Marion E
Schneider-Stock, Regine
Schoenlein, Patricia V
Schorderet, Daniel F
Schüller, Christoph
Schwartz, Gary K
Scorrano, Luca
Sealy, Linda
Votruba, Marcela
Seglen, Per O
Bulman, Dennis E
Segura-Aguilar, Juan
Seiliez, Iban
Seleverstov, Oleksandr
Sell, Christian
Seo, Jong Bok
Separovic, Duska
Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi
Setoguchi, Takao
Wada, Keiji
Settembre, Carmine
Shacka, John J
Bultman, Scott J
Shanmugam, Mala
Shapiro, Irving M
Shaulian, Eitan
Shaw, Reuben J
Shelhamer, James H
Shen, Han-Ming
Shen, Wei-Chiang
Wade-Martins, Richard
Sheng, Zu-Hang
Shi, Yang
Shibuya, Kenichi
Bultynck, Geert
Shidoji, Yoshihiro
Shieh, Jeng-Jer
Shih, Chwen-Ming
Shimada, Yohta
Shimizu, Shigeomi
Shintani, Takahiro
Walker, Cheryl L
Shirihai, Orian S
Shore, Gordon C
Sibirny, Andriy A
Sidhu, Stan B
Burbulla, Lena F
Sikorska, Beata
Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M
Simmons, Alison
Simon, Anna Katharina
Simon, Hans-Uwe
Steffan, Joan S
Walsh, Craig M
Simone, Cristiano
Simonsen, Anne
Sinclair, David A
Singh, Rajat
Sinha, Debasish
Bursch, Wilfried
Sinicrope, Frank A
Sirko, Agnieszka
Siu, Parco M
Sivridis, Efthimios
Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia
Skop, Vojtech
Skulachev, Vladimir P
Slack, Ruth S
Smaili, Soraya S
Smith, Duncan R
Soengas, Maria S
Butchar, Jonathan P
Soldati, Thierry
Song, Xueqin
Sood, Anil K
Campanella, Michelangelo
Soong, Tuck Wah
Sotgia, Federica
Spector, Stephen A
Spies, Claudia D
Springer, Wolfdieter
Srinivasula, Srinivasa M
Stefanis, Leonidas
Walter, Jochen
Wan, Xiang-Bo
Wang, Aimin
Wang, Chenguang
Wang, Dawei
Wang, Fan
Wang, Fen
Stendel, Ruediger
Wang, Guanghui
Wang, Haichao
Wang, Hong-Gang
Campos-Salinas, Jenny
Wang, Horng-Dar
Wang, Jin
Wang, Ke
Wang, Mei
Wang, Richard C
Wang, Xinglong
Stenmark, Harald
Wang, Xuejun
Wang, Ying-Jan
Wang, Yipeng
Wang, Zheng
Candi, Eleonora
Wang, Zhigang Charles
Wang, Zhinong
Wansink, Derick G
Ward, Diane M
Watada, Hirotaka
Stephanou, Anastasis
Waters, Sarah L
Webster, Paul
Wei, Lixin
Weihl, Conrad C
Weiss, William A
Cao, Lizhi
Welford, Scott M
Wen, Long-Ping
Whitehouse, Caroline A
Whitton, J Lindsay
Stern, Stephan T
Whitworth, Alexander J
Wileman, Tom
Wiley, John W
Wilkinson, Simon
Willbold, Dieter
Williams, Roger L
Caplan, Allan B
Williamson, Peter R
Wouters, Bradly G
Wu, Chenghan
Sternberg, Cinthya
Wu, Dao-Cheng
Wu, William K K
Wyttenbach, Andreas
Xavier, Ramnik J
Xi, Zhijun
Xia, Pu
Xiao, Gengfu
Carding, Simon R
Xie, Zhiping
Xie, Zhonglin
Stork, Björn
Xu, Da-zhi
Xu, Jianzhen
Xu, Liang
Xu, Xiaolei
Yamamoto, Ai
Yamamoto, Akitsugu
Yamashina, Shunhei
Yamashita, Michiaki
Cardoso, Sandra M
Yan, Xianghua
Strålfors, Peter
Yanagida, Mitsuhiro
Yang, Dun-Sheng
Yang, Elizabeth
Yang, Jin-Ming
Yang, Shi Yu
Yang, Wannian
Yang, Wei Yuan
Yang, Zhifen
Yao, Meng-Chao
Carew, Jennifer S
Subauste, Carlos S
Yao, Tso-Pang
Yeganeh, Behzad
Yen, Wei-Lien
Yin, Jia-jing
Yin, Xiao-Ming
Yoo, Ook-Joon
Yoon, Gyesoon
Yoon, Seung-Yong
Yorimitsu, Tomohiro
Yoshikawa, Yuko
Sui, Xinbing
Carlin, Cathleen R
Yoshimori, Tamotsu
Yoshimoto, Kohki
You, Ho Jin
Youle, Richard J
Younes, Anas
Yuan, Liqun
Yu, Long
Yu, Seong-Woon
Yu, Wai Haung
Bydlowski, Sergio P
Yuan, Zhi-Min
Carmignac, Virginie
Yue, Zhenyu
Yun, Cheol-Heui
Yuzaki, Michisuke
Zabirnyk, Olga
Silva-Zacarin, Elaine
Zacks, David
Zacksenhaus, Eldad
Zaffaroni, Nadia
Sulzer, David
Zakeri, Zahra
Zeh, Herbert J
Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane
Carneiro, Leticia A M
Zeitlin, Scott O
Zhang, Hong
Zhang, Hui-Ling
Zhang, Jianhua
Zhang, Jing-Pu
Zhang, Lin
Sun, Jiaren
Zhang, Long
Zhang, Ming-Yong
Zhang, Xu Dong
Zhao, Mantong
Carra, Serena
Zhao, Yi-Fang
Zhao, Ying
Zhao, Zhizhuang J
Zheng, Xiaoxiang
Zhivotovsky, Boris
Sun, Shi-Yong
Zhong, Qing
Zhou, Cong-Zhao
Zhu, Changlian
Zhu, Wei-Guo
Zhu, Xiao-Feng
Caruso, Rosario A
Zhu, Xiongwei
Zhu, Yuangang
Zoladek, Teresa
Zong, Wei-Xing
Sun, Zhi-Jun
Zorzano, Antonio
Zschocke, Jürgen
Zuckerbraun, Brian
Casari, Giorgio
Casas, Caty
Castino, Roberta
Cebollero, Eduardo
Cecconi, Francesco
Celli, Jean
Chaachouay, Hassan
Sung, Joseph J Y
Akematsu, Takahiko
Chae, Han-Jung
Chai, Chee-Yin
Chan, David C
Chan, Edmond Y
Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung
Che, Chi-Ming
Chen, Ching-Chow
Chen, Guang-Chao
Chen, Guo-Qiang
Suzuki, Kuninori
Chen, Min
Akira, Shizuo
Chen, Quan
Chen, Steve S-L
Chen, WenLi
Chen, Xi
Chen, Xiangmei
Chen, Xiequn
Chen, Ye-Guang
Chen, Yingyu
Suzuki, Toshihiko
Chen, Yongqiang
Chen, Yu-Jen
Al-Younes, Hesham M
Chen, Zhixiang
Cheng, Alan
Cheng, Christopher H K
Cheng, Yan
Cheong, Heesun
Cheong, Jae-Ho
Cherry, Sara
Swanson, Michele S
Chess-Williams, Russ
Cheung, Zelda H
Chevet, Eric
Al-Zeer, Munir A
Chiang, Hui-Ling
Chiarelli, Roberto
Chiba, Tomoki
Chin, Lih-Shen
Chiou, Shih-Hwa
Chisari, Francis V
Swanton, Charles
Cho, Chi Hin
Cho, Dong-Hyung
Choi, Augustine M K
Choi, DooSeok
Albert, Matthew L
Choi, Kyeong Sook
Choi, Mary E
Chouaib, Salem
Choubey, Divaker
Choubey, Vinay
Sweeney, Sean T
Chu, Charleen T
Chuang, Tsung-Hsien
Chueh, Sheau-Huei
Chun, Taehoon
Chwae, Yong-Joon
Albin, Roger L
Chye, Mee-Len
Ciarcia, Roberto
Ciriolo, Maria R
Clague, Michael J
Cadwell, Ken
Clark, Robert S B
Clarke, Peter G H
Clarke, Robert
Codogno, Patrice
Coller, Hilary A
Colombo, María I
Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier
Comincini, Sergio
Condello, Maria
Condorelli, Fabrizio
Sy, Lai-King
Cookson, Mark R
Coombs, Graham H
Coppens, Isabelle
Corbalan, Ramon
Cossart, Pascale
Costelli, Paola
Costes, Safia
Aleo, Maria Francesca
Coto-Montes, Ana
Couve, Eduardo
Szabadkai, Gyorgy
Coxon, Fraser P
Cregg, James M
Crespo, José L
Cronjé, Marianne J
Cuervo, Ana Maria
Cullen, Joseph J
Czaja, Mark J
D'Amelio, Marcello
Alirezaei, Mehrdad
Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette
Tabas, Ira
Davids, Lester M
Davies, Faith E
De Felici, Massimo
de Groot, John F
de Haan, Cornelis A M
De Martino, Luisa
De Milito, Angelo
De Tata, Vincenzo
Debnath, Jayanta
Almasan, Alexandru
Taegtmeyer, Heinrich
Degterev, Alexei
Dehay, Benjamin
Delbridge, Lea M D
Demarchi, Francesca
Deng, Yi Zhen
Dengjel, Jörn
Dent, Paul
Denton, Donna
Deretic, Vojo
Desai, Shyamal D
Tafani, Marco
Almonte-Becerril, Maylin
Devenish, Rodney J
Di Gioacchino, Mario
Di Paolo, Gilbert
Di Pietro, Chiara
Díaz-Araya, Guillermo
Díaz-Laviada, Inés
Diaz-Meco, Maria T
Diaz-Nido, Javier
Dikic, Ivan
Takács-Vellai, Krisztina
Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P
Amano, Atsuo
Ding, Wen-Xing
Distelhorst, Clark W
Diwan, Abhinav
Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan
Dokudovskaya, Svetlana
Dong, Zheng
Dorsey, Frank C
Dosenko, Victor
Takano, Yoshitaka
Dowling, James J
Doxsey, Stephen
Amaravadi, Ravi
Dreux, Marlène
Drew, Mark E
Duan, Qiuhong
Duchosal, Michel A
Duff, Karen
Dugail, Isabelle
Durbeej, Madeleine
Takegawa, Kaoru
Duszenko, Michael
Edelstein, Charles L
Edinger, Aimee L
Amarnath, Shoba
Egea, Gustavo
Eichinger, Ludwig
Eissa, N Tony
Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan
El-Deiry, Wafik S
Elazar, Zvulun
Takemura, Genzou
Elgendy, Mohamed
Ellerby, Lisa M
Eng, Kai Er
Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart
Amer, Amal O
Engelender, Simone
Erenpreisa, Jekaterina
Escalante, Ricardo
Esclatine, Audrey
Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa
Takeshita, Fumihiko
Espert, Lucile
Espina, Virginia
Fan, Huizhou
Fan, Jia
Fan, Qi-Wen
Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie
Fan, Zhen
Fang, Shengyun
Fang, Yongqi
Fanto, Manolis
Cahová, Monika
Fanzani, Alessandro
Farkas, Thomas
Farré, Jean-Claude
Faure, Mathias
Fechheimer, Marcus
Feng, Carl G
Anantharam, Vellareddy
Feng, Jian
Feng, Qili
Feng, Youji
Talbot, Nicholas J
Fésüs, László
Feuer, Ralph
Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E
Fimia, Gian Maria
Fingar, Diane C
Finkbeiner, Steven
Finkel, Toren
Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
Finley, Kim D
Fiorito, Filomena
Tan, Kevin S W
Fisher, Edward A
Fisher, Paul B
Flajolet, Marc
Florez-McClure, Maria L
Florio, Salvatore
Fon, Edward A
Fornai, Francesco
Fortunato, Franco
Aoki, Hiroshi
Fotedar, Rati
Tanaka, Keiji
Fowler, Daniel H
Fox, Howard S
Franco, Rodrigo
Frankel, Lisa B
Fransen, Marc
Fuentes, José M
Fueyo, Juan
Fujii, Jun
Fujisaki, Kozo
Apostolova, Nadezda
Tanaka, Kozo
Fujita, Eriko
Fukuda, Mitsunori
Furukawa, Ruth H
Gaestel, Matthias
Gailly, Philippe
Gajewska, Malgorzata
Galliot, Brigitte
Galy, Vincent
Ganesh, Subramaniam
Ganetzky, Barry
Tang, Daolin
Auberger, Patrick
Ganley, Ian G
Gao, Fen-Biao
Gao, George F
Gao, Jinming
Garcia, Lorena
Garcia-Manero, Guillermo
Garcia-Marcos, Mikel
Garmyn, Maria
Gartel, Andrei L
Tang, Dingzhong
Gatti, Evelina
Baba, Misuzu
Gautel, Mathias
Gawriluk, Thomas R
Gegg, Matthew E
Geng, Jiefei
Germain, Marc
Gestwicki, Jason E
Gewirtz, David A
Ghavami, Saeid
Tanida, Isei
Ghosh, Pradipta
Giammarioli, Anna M
Backues, Steven K
Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N
Gibson, Spencer B
Gilkerson, Robert W
Ginger, Michael L
Goncu, Ebru
Gongora, Céline
Gonzalez, Claudio D
Tannous, Bakhos A
Gonzalez, Ramon
González-Estévez, Cristina
González-Polo, Rosa Ana
Baehrecke, Eric H
Gonzalez-Rey, Elena
Gorbunov, Nikolai V
Gorski, Sharon
Goruppi, Sandro
Gottlieb, Roberta A
Gozuacik, Devrim
Tavernarakis, Nektarios
Granato, Giovanna Elvira
Grant, Gary D
Green, Kim N
Gregorc, Aleš
Bahr, Ben A
Gros, Frédéric
Grose, Charles
Grunt, Thomas W
Gual, Philippe
Guan, Jun-Lin
Taylor, Graham S
Guan, Kun-Liang
Guichard, Sylvie M
Gukovskaya, Anna S
Gukovsky, Ilya
Gunst, Jan
Bai, Xue-Yuan
Gustafsson, Asa B
Halayko, Andrew J
Hale, Amber N
Halonen, Sandra K
Cai, Dongsheng
Hamasaki, Maho
Hancock, Michael K
Hansen, Malene
Harada, Hisashi
Harada, Masaru
Hardt, Stefan E
Bailly, Yannick
Harper, J Wade
Harris, Adrian L
Harris, James
Taylor, Gregory A
Harris, Steven D
Hébert, Marie-Joseé
Heidenreich, Kim A
Helfrich, Miep H
Helgason, Gudmundur V
Henske, Elizabeth P
Herman, Brian
Baiocchi, Robert
Herman, Paul K
Hetz, Claudio
Taylor, J Paul
Hilfiker, Sabine
Hill, Joseph A
Hocking, Lynne J
Hofman, Paul
Hofmann, Thomas G
Höhfeld, Jörg
Holyoake, Tessa L
Hong, Ming-Huang
Baldini, Giulia
Hood, David A
Terada, Lance S
Hotamisligil, Gökhan S
Houwerzijl, Ewout J
Høyer-Hansen, Maria
Hua, Ya
Huang, Canhua
Huang, Ju
Huang, Shengbing
Huang, Wei-Pang
Huber, Tobias B
Balduini, Walter
Terman, Alexei
Huh, Won-Ki
Hung, Tai-Ho
Hupp, Ted R
Hur, Gang Min
Hurley, James B
Hussain, Sabah N A
Hussey, Patrick J
Hwang, Jung Jin
Hwang, Seungmin
Ichihara, Atsuhiro
Tettamanti, Gianluca
Ballabio, Andrea
Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin
Inoki, Ken
Into, Takeshi
Iovane, Valentina
Iovanna, Juan L
Ip, Nancy Y
Isaka, Yoshitaka
Ishida, Hiroyuki
Isidoro, Ciro
Thevissen, Karin
Isobe, Ken-ichi
Bamber, Bruce A
Iwasaki, Akiko
Izquierdo, Marta
Izumi, Yotaro
Jaakkola, Panu M
Jäättelä, Marja
Jackson, George R
Jackson, William T
Janji, Bassam
Thompson, Craig B
Jendrach, Marina
Jeon, Ju-Hong
Bampton, Edward T W
Jeung, Eui-Bae
Jiang, Hong
Jiang, Hongchi
Jiang, Jean X
Jiang, Ming
Jiang, Qing
Jiang, Xuejun
Thorburn, Andrew
Jiang, Xuejun
Jiménez, Alberto
Jin, Meiyan
Bánhegyi, Gábor
Jin, Shengkan
Joe, Cheol O
Johansen, Terje
Johnson, Daniel E
Johnson, Gail V W
Jones, Nicola L
Thumm, Michael
Joseph, Bertrand
Joseph, Suresh K
Joubert, Annie M
Juhász, Gábor
Bartholomew, Clinton R
Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne
Jung, Chang Hwa
Jung, Yong-Keun
Kaarniranta, Kai
Kaasik, Allen
Tian, FengFeng
Kabuta, Tomohiro
Kadowaki, Motoni
Kagedal, Katarina
Kamada, Yoshiaki
Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O
Bassham, Diane C
Kampinga, Harm H
Kanamori, Hiromitsu
Kang, Chanhee
Kang, Khong Bee
Cai, Jiyang
Kang, Kwang Il
Kang, Rui
Kang, Yoon-A
Kanki, Tomotake
Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi
Kanno, Haruo
Bast, Robert C
Kanthasamy, Anumantha G
Kanthasamy, Arthi
Karantza, Vassiliki
Tian, Yuan
Kaushal, Gur P
Kaushik, Susmita
Kawazoe, Yoshinori
Kehrl, John H
Kelekar, Ameeta
Kerkhoff, Claus
Kessel, David H
Batoko, Henri
Khalil, Hany
Kiel, Jan A K W
Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco
Kiger, Amy A
Kihara, Akio
Kim, Deok Ryong
Kim, Do-Hyung
Kim, Dong-Hou
Kim, Eun-Kyoung
Kim, Hyung-Ryong
Kim, Jae-Sung
Bay, Boon-Huat
Kim, Jeong Hun
Tolkovsky, Aviva M
Kim, Jin Cheon
Kim, John K
Kim, Peter K
Kim, Seong Who
Kim, Yong-Sun
Kim, Yonghyun
Kimchi, Adi
Kimmelman, Alec C
King, Jason S
Beau, Isabelle
Tomino, Yasuhiko
Kinsella, Timothy J
Kirkin, Vladimir
Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A
Kitamoto, Katsuhiko
Kitazato, Kaio
Klein, Ludger
Klimecki, Walter T
Klucken, Jochen
Knecht, Erwin
Koch, Jan C
Tönges, Lars
Béchet, Daniel M
Koga, Hiroshi
Koh, Jae-Young
Koh, Young Ho
Koike, Masato
Komatsu, Masaaki
Kominami, Eiki
Kong, Hee Jeong
Kong, Wei-Jia
Korolchuk, Viktor I
Tooze, Sharon A
Kotake, Yaichiro
Begley, Thomas J
Koukourakis, Michael I
Kouri Flores, Juan B
Kovács, Attila L
Kraft, Claudine
Krainc, Dimitri
Krämer, Helmut
Kretz-Remy, Carole
Krichevsky, Anna M
Tournier, Cathy
Kroemer, Guido
Krüger, Rejko
Behl, Christian
Krut, Oleg
Ktistakis, Nicholas T
Kuan, Chia-Yi
Kucharczyk, Roza
Kumar, Ashok
Kumar, Raj
Kumar, Sharad
Tower, John
Kundu, Mondira
Kung, Hsing-Jien
Kurz, Tino
Behrends, Christian
Kwon, Ho Jeong
La Spada, Albert R
Lafont, Frank
Lamark, Trond
Landry, Jacques
Lane, Jon D
Towns, Roberto
Lapaquette, Pierre
Laporte, Jocelyn F
László, Lajos
Lavandero, Sergio
Bekri, Soumeya
Lavoie, Josée N
Layfield, Robert
Lazo, Pedro A
Le Cam, Laurent
Ledbetter, Daniel J
Trajkovic, Vladimir
Lee, Alvin J X
Lee, Byung-Wan
Lee, Gyun Min
Lee, Jongdae
Lee, Ju-Hyun
Bellaire, Bryan
Lee, Michael
Lee, Myung-Shik
Lee, Sug Hyung
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Cai, Qian
Legembre, Patrick
Legouis, Renaud
Lehmann, Michael
Lei, Huan-Yao
Lei, Qun-Ying
Leib, David A
Bendall, Linda J
Leiro, José
Lemasters, John J
Lemoine, Antoinette
Travassos, Leonardo H
Lesniak, Maciej S
Lev, Dina
Levenson, Victor V
Levine, Beth
Levy, Efrat
Liao, Yung-Feng
Liberski, Pawel P
Benetti, Luca
Lieberman, Andrew
Lim, Hyunjung J
Tsai, Ting-Fen
Lim, Kah-Leong
Lim, Kyu
Lin, Chiou-Feng
Lin, Fu-Cheng
Lin, Jian
Lin, Jiandie D
Lin, Kui
Lin, Wan-Wan
Berliocchi, Laura
Lin, Weei-Chin
Tschan, Mario P
Lin, Yi-Ling
Linden, Rafael
Lingor, Paul
Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer
Lisanti, Michael P
Liton, Paloma B
Liu, Bo
Liu, Chun-Feng
Liu, Kaiyu
Bernardi, Henri
Tsubata, Takeshi
Liu, Leyuan
Liu, Qiong A
Liu, Wei
Liu, Young-Chau
Liu, Yule
Lockshin, Richard A
Lok, Chun-Nam
Lonial, Sagar
Loos, Benjamin
Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel
Tsung, Allan
Bernassola, Francesca
López-Otín, Carlos
Lossi, Laura
Lotze, Michael T
Lőw, Peter
Luciano, Frédéric
Lukacs, Nicholas W
Lund, Anders H
Lynch-Day, Melinda A
Macian, Fernando
Turk, Boris
MacKeigan, Jeff P
Besteiro, Sébastien
Macleod, Kay F
Madeo, Frank
Maiuri, Luigi
Maiuri, Maria Chiara
Malagoli, Davide
Malicdan, May Christine V
Malorni, Walter
Man, Na
Turner, Lorianne S
Mandelkow, Eva-Maria
Manon, Stéphen
Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid
Manov, Irena
Mao, Kai
Mao, Xiang
Mao, Zixu
Marambaud, Philippe
Marazziti, Daniela
Marcel, Yves L
Tyagi, Suresh C
Marchbank, Katie
Marchetti, Piero
Marciniak, Stefan J
Bi, Xiaoning
Marcondes, Mateus
Mardi, Mohsen
Marfe, Gabriella
Mariño, Guillermo
Markaki, Maria
Marten, Mark R
Uchiyama, Yasuo
Martin, Seamus J
Martinand-Mari, Camille
Martinet, Wim
Martinez-Vicente, Marta
Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine
Masini, Matilde
Matarrese, Paola
Matsuo, Saburo
Matteoni, Raffaele
Mayer, Andreas
Ueno, Takashi
Mazure, Nathalie M
McConkey, David J
McConnell, Melanie J
McDermott, Catherine
McDonald, Christine
Blum, Janice S
McInerney, Gerald M
McKenna, Sharon L
McLaughlin, BethAnn
McLean, Pamela J
Calabretta, Bruno
McMaster, Christopher R
McQuibban, G Angus
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Meisler, Miriam H
Meléndez, Alicia
Melia, Thomas J
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Melino, Gerry
Mena, Maria A
Menendez, Javier A
Umekawa, Midori
Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S
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Menzies, Fiona M
Mercer, Carol A
Merighi, Adalberto
Merry, Diane E
Meschini, Stefania
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Meyer, Thomas F
Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika
Miao, Chao-Yu
Miao, Jun-Ying
Michels, Paul A M
Michiels, Carine
Mijaljica, Dalibor
Milojkovic, Ana
Minucci, Saverio
Miracco, Clelia
Boone, David L
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Miyazawa, Keisuke
Mizushima, Noboru
Mograbi, Baharia
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Molero, Xavier
Mollereau, Bertrand
Mollinedo, Faustino
Momoi, Takashi
Bornhauser, Beat C
Vaccaro, Maria I
Monastyrska, Iryna
Monick, Martha M
Monteiro, Mervyn J
Moore, Michael N
Mora, Rodrigo
Moreau, Kevin
Moreira, Paula I
Moriyasu, Yuji
Moscat, Jorge
Mostowy, Serge
Valente, Enza Maria
Bortoluci, Karina R
Mottram, Jeremy C
Motyl, Tomasz
Moussa, Charbel E-H
Müller, Sylke
Muller, Sylviane
Münger, Karl
Münz, Christian
Murphy, Leon O
Murphy, Maureen E
Van den Berghe, Greet
Musarò, Antonio
Bossis, Ioannis
Mysorekar, Indira
Nagata, Eiichiro
Nagata, Kazuhiro
Nahimana, Aimable
Nair, Usha
Nakagawa, Toshiyuki
Nakahira, Kiichi
Nakano, Hiroyasu
van der Klei, Ida J
Nakatogawa, Hitoshi
Nanjundan, Meera
Bost, Frédéric
Naqvi, Naweed I
Narendra, Derek P
Narita, Masashi
Navarro, Miguel
Nawrocki, Steffan T
Nazarko, Taras Y
Nemchenko, Andriy
van Doorn, Wouter
Netea, Mihai G
Neufeld, Thomas P
Ney, Paul A
Bourquin, Jean-Pierre
Nezis, Ioannis P
Nguyen, Huu Phuc
Nie, Daotai
Nishino, Ichizo
Nislow, Corey
Nixon, Ralph A
van Dyk, Linda F
Noda, Takeshi
Noegel, Angelika A
Nogalska, Anna
Noguchi, Satoru
Boya, Patricia
Notterpek, Lucia
Novak, Ivana
Nozaki, Tomoyoshi
Nukina, Nobuyuki
Nürnberger, Thorsten
van Egmond, Marjolein
Nyfeler, Beat
Obara, Keisuke
Oberley, Terry D
Oddo, Salvatore
Ogawa, Michinaga
Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël
Ohashi, Toya
Okamoto, Koji
Oleinick, Nancy L
Oliver, F Javier
Calvo-Garrido, Javier
Olsen, Laura J
Olsson, Stefan
Opota, Onya
Osborne, Timothy F
Ostrander, Gary K
Otsu, Kinya
Bozhkov, Peter V
Ou, Jing-hsiung James
Ouimet, Mireille
Overholtzer, Michael #
Issue Date: Apr-2012
Publisher: Landes Bioscience
Series Title: Autophagy vol:8 issue:4 pages:445-544
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
ISSN: 1554-8627
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Laboratory of Lipid Biochemistry and Protein Interactions
Laboratory of Cell Death Research & Therapy
Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine
Laboratory for Parkinson Research
Laboratory of Dermatology
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Signaling
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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