Depending on the cell line used for virus propagation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles may possess class II MHC proteins, as demonstrated by FACS analysis. HLA-DR appeared in high amounts at the HIV envelope, if the virus was grown in HLA-DR+ cells, but was absent if the virus had been grown in HLA-DR- cells. No other cellular constituents, including HLA-DQ and HLA-DP, were detected in these virions. The presence of HLA-DR in the virion envelope itself in preparations used for diagnostic purposes may explain some of the false-positive results obtained in earlier serological tests for HIV infection. Possible implications of these virus-associated cellular antigens in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS should be considered.