Cellular and Molecular Biology vol:49 Online Pub pages:OL443-52
Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells strongly express CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), the principal coreceptor for X4 HIV-1 strains, and its natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1, recently renamed CXCL12). We investigated the impact of CXCR4 blockade by the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or by X4 HIV-1 virus particles on the growth and survival of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. SK-N-SH cell proliferation was inhibited byAMD3100 and anti-CXCL12 neutralizing antibodies, but enhanced by exogenously added CXCL12. Upon prolongedexposure to AMD3100, SK-N-SH cell death occurred throughdeficit of survival-promoting and growth-stimulatory signals generated by endogenous CXCL12. In analogy with the observations made with the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, the X4 HIV-1 strains IIIB and SF-2, but not the R5 strain BaL, caused a marked cytopathic effect and strongly effected SK-N-SH cell death after at least 10 days of incubation. However, no virus production could be detected in the HIV-1-inoculated SK-N-SH cell cultures. Exogenously added CXCL12 afforded partial protection against X4 HIV-1-induced cytopathicity in SK-N-SH cells. Our data indicate that the endogenous CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis is critical for neuroblastoma cell survival and proliferation. Long-term blockade of CXCR4 through physical contact with the X4 HIV-1 envelope can cause neuronal cell death. This mechanism may possibly play a role in X4 HIV-associated neurodegeneration.