Heterozygous deletion or mutation in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B/transcription factor 2 (HNF1B/TCF2) causes renal cyst and diabetes syndrome (OMIM #137920). Mice with homozygous liver-specific deletion of Hnf1β revealed that a complete lack of this factor leads to ductopenia and bile duct dysplasia, in addition to mild hepatocyte defects. However, little is known about the hepatic consequences of deficient HNF1B function in humans. Three patients with heterozygous HNF1B deficiency were found to have normal bile duct formation on radiology and routine liver pathology. Electron microscopy revealed a paucity or absence of normal primary cilia. Therefore, heterozygous HNF1B deficiency is associated with ciliary anomalies in cholangiocytes, and this may cause cholestasis. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).