Journal of Virology vol:80 issue:17 pages:8411-8421
Limited data are available on the genotypic and phenotypic resistance profile of the alpha-(1-2)mannose oligomer-specific prokaryotic lectin cyanovirin (CV-N). Therefore, a more systematic investigation was carried out to obtain a better view of the interaction between CV-N and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. When HIV-1-infected CEM cell cultures were exposed to CV-N in a dose-escalating manner, a total of eight different amino acid mutations exclusively located at N-glycosylation sites in the envelope surface gp120 were observed. Six of the eight mutations resulted in the deletion of high-mannose type N-glycans (i.e., at amino acid positions 230, 332, 339, 386, 392, and 448). Two mutations (i.e., at position 136 and 160) deleted a complex type N-glycan in the variable V1/V2 domain of gp120. The level of phenotypic resistance of the mutated virus strains against CV-N generally correlated with the number of glycan deletions in gp120, although deletion of the glycans at N-230, N-392, and N-448 generally afforded a more pronounced CV-N resistance than other N-glycan deletions. However, the extent of the decrease of antiviral activity of CV-N against the mutated virus strains was markedly less pronounced than observed for alpha(1-3)- and alpha(1-6)-mannose-specific plant lectins Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin (HHA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), which points to the existence of a higher genetic barrier for CV-N. This is in agreement with a more consistent suppression of a wider variety of HIV-1 clades by CV-N than by HHA and GNA. Whereas the antiviral and in vitro antiproliferative activity of CV-N can be efficiently reversed by mannan, the pronounced mitogenic activity of CV-N on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was unaffected by mannan, indicating that some of the observed side effects of CV-N are unrelated to its carbohydrate specificity/activity.