Biochimica et Biophysica Acta vol:1248 issue:1 pages:1-10
The relatively large size and dynamics of oligosaccharides can result in substantial shielding of functionally important areas of proteins to which they are attached, modulate the interactions of glycoconjugates with other molecules and affect the rate of processes which involve conformational changes. This review focuses on the occupancy of N-linked glycosylation sites on three enzymes, ribonuclease, plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator. Each of these proteins occurs naturally as two populations of molecules, distinguished from each other only by the presence or absence of an oligosaccharide at one glycosylation site. The presence of an oligomannose sugar on ribonuclease (at Asn-34) alters its overall dynamics, increases its stability towards proteinases and decreases its functional activity towards double-stranded RNA. The N-linked sugar on plasminogen (at Asn-288) within kringle 3 reduces the rate of the beta- to alpha-conformational change, modulates the transport of plasminogen into the extravascular compartment, decreases plasminogen binding to U937 cells and downregulates the activation of plasminogen by both urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. Additionally, in fibrinolysis, within a ternary complex of fibrin, plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator, the N-linked sugar of plasminogen hinders the initial interaction with tissue plasminogen activator (i.e., it alters Km). The presence of an N-linked glycan (at Asn-184) in the kringle 2 domain of tissue plasminogen activator hinders the rearrangement of this ternary complex, decreasing the turnover rate (Kcat).