Burkholderia endophytes were identified within the leaves of non-nodulated members of the genus Psychotria. In contrast to leaf-nodulated Psychotria species, which are known to accommodate their endosymbionts into specialized endosymbiont-housing structures, non-nodulated species lack bacterial leaf nodules and harbor endosymbionts intercellularly between mesophyll cells. Based on molecular data (rps16, trnG, and trnLF), the phylogenetic reconstruction of the host plants revealed a separate origin of leaf-nodulated and non-nodulated Psychotria species. Despite a distinct phylogenetic position of the two host clades, the endophytes of the non-nodulated plants were not placed into a single monophyletic group but were found to be closely related to the leaf-nodulated endosymbionts. The observation of genetically similar endophytes in both nodulated and non-nodulated Psychotria lineages suggests that the host plant is playing a crucial role in the induction of leaf nodule formation. Moreover, the concentration of endosymbionts into specialized leaf nodules may be considered as a more derived evolutionary adaptation of the host plant, serving as an interface structure to facilitate metabolic exchange between plant and endosymbiont.