Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications vol:155 issue:3 pages:1404-11
Fuchsin acid, an anionic dye, is a selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) in vitro. Its 50% effective dose for inhibition of HIV-1-induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells and HIV-1 antigen expression in HUT-78 cells is 42 and 16 microM, respectively. These values are comparable to those of suramin, the first compound shown to be a selective inhibitor of HIV-1. However, fuchsin acid is less cytotoxic than suramin. The selectivity index of fuchsin acid, based on the ratio of the 50% cytotoxic dose to the 50% effective dose, is greater than 74 in MT-4 cells and greater than 39 in HUT-78 cells. Fuchsin acid is a much weaker inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase than are suramin and aurintricarboxylic acid. Fuchsin acid does not interfere with the adsorption of HIV-1 particles to MT-4 cells even at concentrations that completely block HIV-1 replication in MT-4 cells. The mechanism of action of fuchsin acid remains subject of further study.