Glycine-amide is an active metabolite of the antiretroviral tripeptide glycyl-prolyl-glycine-amide
Andersson, Elin × Horal, Peter Jejcic, Alenka Höglund, Stefan Balzarini, Jan Vahlne, Anders Svennerholm, Bo #
American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy vol:49 issue:1 pages:40-44
The chemically modified tripeptide glycyl-prolyl-glycine-amide (GPG-NH(2)) inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro, probably by interfering with capsid formation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the metabolites glycyl-proline (GP-OH), glycine (G-OH), prolyl-glycine-amide (PG-NH(2)), proline (P-OH), and glycine-amide (G-NH(2)) from proteolytic cleavage may inhibit the replication of HIV-1 in vitro. PG-NH(2) has previously been shown to have a modest effect on HIV-1 replication. In the present study we show that G-NH(2) exhibits a pronounced inhibitory effect on HIV-1. This effect was not due to a decrease in cell proliferation or viability and could not be shown for herpes simplex virus type 1. The G-NH(2) concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC(50)) was equimolar to that of GPG-NH(2) and ranged from 3 to 41 microM. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the effect of G-NH(2) on HIV-1 morphology was equivalent to that of GPG-NH(2) and showed disarranged capsid structures, indicating interference with capsid formation. Serial passage of HIV-infected cells with G-NH(2) for more than 20 subcultivations did not decrease the susceptibility to the compound. The results from this study suggest that GPG-NH(2) might act as a prodrug and that G-NH(2) is an active antiretroviral metabolite.