Molecular biology and evolution vol:20 issue:12 pages:1986-96
The most plausible origin of HIV-1 group M is an SIV lineage currently represented by SIVcpz isolated from the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes. The origin of HIV-1 group O is less clear. Putative recombination between any of the HIV-1 and SIVcpz sequences was tested using bootscanning and Bayesian-scanning plots, as well as a new method using a Bayesian multiple change-point (BMCP) model to infer parental sequences and crossing-over points. We found that in the case of highly divergent sequences, such as HIV-1/SIVcpz, Bayesian scanning and BMCP methods are more appropriate than bootscanning analysis to investigate spatial phylogenetic variation, including estimating the boundaries of the regions with discordant evolutionary relationships and the levels of support of the phylogenetic clusters under study. According to the Bayesian scanning plots and BMCP method, there was strong evidence for discordant phylogenetic clustering throughout the genome: (1) HIV-1 group O clustered with SIVcpzANT/TAN in middle pol, and partial vif/env; (2) SIVcpzGab1 clustered with SIVcpzANT/TAN in 3'pol/vif, and middle env; (3) HIV-1 group O grouped with SIVcpzCamUS and SIVcpzGab1 in p17/p24; (4) HIV-1 group M was more closely related to SIVcpzCamUS in 3'gag/pol and in middle pol, whereas in partial gp120 group M clustered with group O. Conditionally independent phylogenetic analysis inferred by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods further confirmed these findings. The discordant phylogenetic relationships between the HIV-1/SIVcpz sequences may have been caused by ancient recombination events, but they are also due, at least in part, to altered rates of evolution between parental SIVcpz lineages.