Journal of General Virology vol:86 issue:Pt 7 pages:1953-1959
Full-genome sequencing and analysis of the highly divergent simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV-1) strain MarB43 in Macaca arctoides indicated that its open reading frame structure is compatible with proper functioning of its Gag, Pol, Env, Tax and Rex proteins. Detailed analysis of the coding potential, however, revealed that MarB43 is probably forced to use the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2/STLV-2 env-tax-rex splice-acceptor homologue and that the proximal pX auxiliary proteins p12(I), p13(II), p30(II) and p27(I) seem to have lost their function. Full-genome (gag-pol-env-tax), long terminal repeat and env phylogenetic analyses conclusively identified STLV-1 in M. arctoides as the currently most divergent STLV-1 strain. The long branching pattern of the monophyletic STLV-1 Macaca subspecies clades suggests that macaques might be the ancestral reservoir for primate T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in Asia. Full-genome molecular-clock analysis supports an archaic introduction of STLV-1 on the Asian continent, at least 269 000-156 000 years ago.