Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol:97 issue:13 pages:7476-81
Two prominent members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transmembrane proteins, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), can mediate the cellular extrusion of xenobiotics and (anticancer) drugs from normal and tumor cells. The MRP subfamily consists of at least six members, and here we report the functional characterization of human MRP5. We found resistance against the thiopurine anticancer drugs, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and thioguanine, and the anti-HIV drug 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA) in MRP5-transfected cells. This resistance is due to an increased extrusion of PMEA and 6-thioinosine monophosphate from the cells that overproduce MRP5. In polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells transfected with an MRP5 cDNA construct, MRP5 is routed to the basolateral membrane and these cells transport S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione and glutathione preferentially toward the basal compartment. Inhibitors of organic anion transport inhibit transport mediated by MRP5. We speculate that MRP5 might play a role in some cases of unexplained resistance to thiopurines in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and/or to antiretroviral nucleoside analogs in HIV-infected patients.