Death Protein 5 and p53-Upregulated Modulator of Apoptosis Mediate the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mitochondrial Dialog Triggering Lipotoxic Rodent and Human β-Cell Apoptosis
Cunha, Daniel A × Igoillo-Esteve, Mariana Gurzov, Esteban N Germano, Carla M Naamane, Najib Marhfour, Ihsane Fukaya, Makiko Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie Gysemans, Conny Mathieu, Chantal Marselli, Lorella Marchetti, Piero Harding, Heather P Ron, David Eizirik, Décio L Cnop, Miriam #
American Diabetes Association
Diabetes vol:61 issue:11 pages:2763-2775
Environmental factors such as diets rich in saturated fats contribute to dysfunction and death of pancreatic β-cells in diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is elicited in β-cells by saturated fatty acids. Here we show that palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis is mediated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. By microarray analysis, we identified a palmitate-triggered ER stress gene expression signature and the induction of the BH3-only proteins death protein 5 (DP5) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). Knockdown of either protein reduced cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in rat and human β-cells. DP5 induction depends on inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK)-induced activating transcription factor (ATF3) binding to its promoter. PUMA expression is also PERK/ATF3-dependent, through tribbles 3 (TRB3)-regulated AKT inhibition and FoxO3a activation. DP5(-/-) mice are protected from high fat diet-induced loss of glucose tolerance and have twofold greater pancreatic β-cell mass. This study elucidates the crosstalk between lipotoxic ER stress and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis that causes β-cell death in diabetes.