The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are the main coreceptors used by the T-cell-tropic (CXCR4-using, X4) and macrophage-tropic (CCR5-using, R5) HIV-1 strains, respectively, for entering their CD4+ target cells. In this review, we focus on the function of these chemokine receptors in HIV infection and their role as novel targets for viral inhibition. Besides some modified chemokines with antiviral activity, several low-molecular weight CCR5 and CXCR4 antagonistic compounds have been described with potent antiviral activity. The best CXCR4 antagonists described are the bicyclam derivatives, which consistently block X4 but also R5/X4 viral replication in PBMCs. We believe that chemokine receptor antagonists will become important new antiviral drugs to combat AIDS. Both CXCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptor inhibitors will be needed in combination and even in combinations of antiviral drugs that also target other aspects of the HIV replication cycle to obtain optimum antiviral therapeutic effects.