Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters vol:11 issue:1 pages:763-766
It is well-known that in an array the actual beam direction differs from the beam direction of the array factor. This is an issue coming up especially when studying beam steering in small and medium sized arrays. There the effect may be considerable. It seriously affects the electronics taking care of the steering. This paper derives a simple relation between the actual beam direction and the beam direction of the array factor. Its use makes the programming of electronic beam steering much easier. This relation is validated by experiments on a 2x1 array, the array most sensitive to the effect, and an 8x8 array.