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Title: Mapping of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer
Authors: Joniau, Steven ×
Van den Bergh, L
Lerut, Evelyne
Deroose, Christophe
Haustermans, Karin
Oyen, Raymond
Budiharto, T
Ameye, F
Bogaerts, Kris
Van Poppel, Hendrik #
Issue Date: Mar-2013
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Series Title: European Urology vol:63 issue:3 pages:450-458
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Opinions about the optimal lymph node dissection (LND) template in prostate cancer differ. Drainage and dissemination patterns are not necessarily identical.

OBJECTIVE: To present a precise overview of the lymphatic drainage pattern and to correlate those findings with dissemination patterns. We also investigated the relationship between the number of positive lymph nodes (LN+) and resected lymph nodes (LNs) per region.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-four patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma were prospectively enrolled. Patients did not show suspect LNs on computed tomography scan and had an LN involvement risk of ≥10% but ≤35% (Partin tables) or a cT3 tumor.

INTERVENTION: After intraprostatic technetium-99m nanocolloid injection, patients underwent planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Then surgery was performed, starting with a sentinel node (SN) procedure and a superextended lymphadenectomy followed by radical prostatectomy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Distribution of scintigraphically detected SNs and removed SNs per region were registered. The number of LN+, as well as the percentage LN+ of the total number of removed LNs per region, was demonstrated in combining data of all patients. The impact of the extent of LND on N-staging and on the number of LN+ removed was calculated.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 470 SNs were scintigraphically detected (median: 6; interquartile range [IQR]: 3-9), of which 371 SNs were removed (median: 4; IQR: 2.25-6). In total, 91 LN+ (median: 2; IQR: 1-3) were found in 34 of 74 patients. The predominant site for LN+ was the internal iliac region. An extended LND (eLND) would have correctly staged 32 of 34 patients but would have adequately removed all LN+ in only 26 of 34 patients. When adding the presacral region, these numbers increased to 33 of 34 and 30 of 34 patients, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Standard eLND would have correctly staged the majority of LN+ patients, but 13% of the LN+ would have been missed. Adding the presacral LNs to the template should be considered to obtain a minimal template with maximal gain. NOTE: This manuscript was invited based on the 2011 European Association of Urology meeting in Vienna.

Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
URI: 
ISSN: 0302-2838
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Leuven Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics Centre (L-BioStat)
Radiology
Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging
Translational Cell & Tissue Research
Screening, Diagnostics and Biomarkers (-)
Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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