Patient Positioning Based on a Radioactive Tracer Implanted in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: A Performance and Safety Evaluation
de Kruijf, W × Verstraete, J Neustadter, D Corn, B Hol, S Venselaar, J Davits, R Wijsman, B Van den Bergh, L Budiharto, T Oyen, Raymond Haustermans, Karin Poortmans, P #
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics vol:85 issue:2 pages:555-560
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance and safety of a radiation therapy positioning system (RealEye) based on tracking a radioactive marker (Tracer) implanted in patients with localized prostate cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a single-arm multi-institutional trial in 20 patients. The iridium-192 ((192)Ir)-containing Tracer was implanted in the patient together with 4 standard gold seed fiducials. Patient prostate-related symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for treatment planning, during treatment, and after treatment to evaluate the migration stability of the Tracer. At 5 treatment sessions, cone beam CT was performed to test the positioning accuracy of the RealEye.
RESULTS: The Tracer was successfully implanted in all patients. No device or procedure-related adverse events occurred. Changes in IPSS scores were limited. The difference between the mean change in Tracer-fiducial distance and the mean change in fiducial-fiducial distance was -0.39 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] upper boundary, -0.22 mm). The adjusted mean difference between Tracer position according to RealEye and the Tracer position on the CBCT for all patients was 1.34 mm (95% CI upper boundary, 1.41 mm).
CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of the Tracer is feasible and safe. Migration stability of the Tracer is good. Prostate patients can be positioned and monitored accurately by using RealEye.