Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO : Al films
Lu, J. G × Fujita, S Kawaharamura, T Nishinaka, H Kamada, Y Ohshima, T Ye, Z Zeng, Yujia Zhang, Y Zhu, L Zhao, B #
American Institute of Physics
Journal of Applied Physics vol:101 issue:8 pages:1-7
Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films have been prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering. The band gap shift as a function of carrier concentration in n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) was systematically studied considering the available theoretical models. The shift in energy gap, evaluated from optical absorption spectra, did not depend on sample preparations; it was mainly related to the carrier concentrations and so intrinsic to AZO. The optical gap increased with the electron concentration approximately as n(e)(2/3) for n(e)<= 4.2x10(19) cm(-3), which could be fully interpreted by a modified Burstein-Moss (BM) shift with the nonparabolicity of the conduction band. A sudden decrease in energy gap occurred at 5.4-8.4x10(19) cm(-3), consistent with the Mott criterion for a semiconductor-metal transition. Above the critical values, the band gap increased again at a different rate, which was presumably due to the competing BM band-filling and band gap renormalization effects, the former inducing a band gap widening and the latter an offsetting narrowing. The band gap narrowing (Delta E-BGN) derived from the band gap renormalization effect did not show a good n(e)(1/3) dependence predicated by a weakly interacting electron-gas model, but it was in excellent agreement with a perturbation theory considering different many-body effects. Based on this theory a simple expression, Delta E-BGN=An(e)(1/3)+Bn-e(1/4)+Cn(e)(1/2), was deduced for n-type ZnO, as well as p-type ZnO, with detailed values of A, B, and C coefficients. An empirical relation once proposed for heavily doped Si could also be used to describe well this gap narrowing in AZO. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics.