In vivo HIV-1 Rev multimerization in the nucleolus and cytoplasm identified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer
Daelemans, Dirk × Costes, Sylvain V Cho, Edward H Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca A Lockett, Stephen Pavlakis, George N #
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:279 issue:48 pages:50167-50175
Nuclear export of intron-containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA is mediated by the viral Rev protein. Rev is a nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that directly binds to its cis-acting Rev-responsive element RNA. Rev function depends on its ability to multimerize. The in vivo dynamics and the subcellular dependence of this process are still largely unexplored. To visualize and quantitatively analyze the mechanism of Rev multimeric assembly in live cells, we used high resolution in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. By using two different dynamic FRET approaches (acceptor photobleaching and donor bleaching time measurements), we observed a strong Rev-Rev interaction in the nucleoli of living cells. Most interestingly, we could also detect Rev multimerization in the cytoplasm; however, FRET efficiency in the cytoplasm was significantly lower than in the nucleolus. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we investigated the mobility of Rev within the nucleolus. Mathematical modeling of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching recoveries enabled us to extract relative association and dissociation constants and the diffusion coefficient of Rev in the nucleolus. Our results show that Rev multimerizes in the nucleolus of living cells, suggesting an important role of the nucleolus in nucleocytoplasmic transport.