Published for the Annals of Botany Co. by Academic Press
Annals of Botany vol:109 issue:4 pages:783-799
The family Balsaminaceae is essentially herbaceous, except for some woodier species that can be described as owoody' herbs or small shrubs. The family is nested within the so-called balsaminoid clade of Ericales, including the exclusively woody families Tetrameristaceae and Marcgraviaceae, which is sister to the remaining families of the predominantly woody order. A molecular phylogeny of Balsaminaceae is compared with wood anatomical observations to find out whether the woodier species are derived from herbaceous taxa (i.e. secondary woodiness), or whether woodiness in the family represents the ancestral state for the order (i.e. primary woodiness).