Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) have been characterized as a multipotent stem cell population, with the ability to differentiate into mesodermal and neural cell lineages. Although 'de novo' expression of neural markers after differentiation is mostly considered as proof of differentiation, expression of these markers in undifferentiated DPSC is not well described. Therefore, an immunocytochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the neural marker expression of undifferentiated human DPSC (hDPSC) in in vitro cultures. Undifferentiated hDPSC uniformly expressed neural markers β-III-tubulin, S100 protein and synaptophysin. A subset of the population showed a positive immune-reactivity for galactocerebroside, neurofilament and nerve growth factor receptor p75. Furthermore, the location of possible stem cell niches, present in young dental pulp tissue, was determined by means of immunohistochemistry based on mesenchymal and neural marker expression. The results demonstrated the presence of a perivascular niche and a second stem cell niche at the cervical area. In adult dental pulp, only a perivascular niche could be observed. Based on the expression of neural markers in naïve DPSC, it has to be taken into account that not only the marker expression upon neural differentiation must be analyzed, but an ultrastructural analysis of the morphological changes and functional studies must also be performed to confirm a successful differentiation.