Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry vol:325 issue:1-2 pages:169-178
Glyoxalase I (GLO1), together with glyoxalase II and the co-factor GSH, comprise the glyoxalase system, which is responsible for the detoxification of the cytotoxic glycolytic-derived metabolite methylglyoxal (MG). We, and others, have previously reported that GLO1 is subjected to several post-translational modifications, including a NO-mediated modification and phosphorylation. In this study, we demonstrate that GLO1 is a substrate for calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Site-directed mutagenesis of several serine and threonine residues revealed that CaMKII induced phosphorylation of GLO1 at a single site Thr-106. Mutagenesis of Thr-106 to Ala in GLO1 completely abolished the CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation. A phosphopeptide bracketing phosphothreonine-106 in GLO1 was used as an antigen to generate polyclonal antibodies against phosphothreonine-106. By using this phospho-specific antibody, we demonstrated that TNF induces phosphorylation of GLO1 on Thr-106. Furthermore, we investigated the role of NO-mediated modification and phosphorylation of GLO1 in the TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa B. Overexpression of WT GLO1 suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappa B-dependent reporter gene expression. Suppression of the basal and TNF-induced NF-kappa B activity was significantly stronger upon expression of a GLO1 mutant that was either deficient for the NO-mediated modification or phosphorylation on Thr-106. However, upon overexpression of a GLO1 mutant that was deficient for both types of modification, the suppressive effect of GLO1 on TNF-induced NF-kappa B activity was completely abolished. These results suggest that NO-modification and phosphorylation of GLO1 contribute to the suppression of TNF-induced NF-kappa B-dependent reporter gene expression. In line with this, knock-down of GLO1 by siRNA significantly increased TNF-induced NF-kappa B-dependent reporter gene expression. These findings suggest that phosphorylation and NO-modification of glyoxalase I provides another control mechanism for modulating the basal and TNF-induced expression of NF-kappaB-responsive genes.