Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology vol:34 pages:S225-S226
North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity location:Honolulu, Hawaï date:7-9 June 2012
Collective efficacy can be defined as a group’s shared confidence that they will successfully achieve their goal. We examined which behaviors and events are perceived as sources of collective efficacy beliefs in a volleyball context. In Study 1, volleyball coaches from the highest volleyball leagues (n=33) in Belgium indicated the most important sources of collective efficacy. This list was then adapted based on the literature and on feedback given by an expert focus group, resulting in a 40-item questionnaire. In Study 2, coaches and players from all levels of volleyball in Belgium (n=2,365) rated each of these sources on their predictive value for collective efficacy. A principal component analysis revealed that the 40 sources could be divided into eight internally consistent components. Positive supportive communication (e.g., enthusiasm after making a point) was identified as the component that was most predictive for positive collective efficacy beliefs. A component referring to the negative emotional reactions of players (e.g., discouraged body language) was the most predictive for negative collective efficacy beliefs. At item level, the expression of collective efficacy by the athlete leaders on the field was rated by the coaches as most predictive for positive efficacy beliefs. Therefore, in Study 3 we focused on these athlete leaders. More specifically we explored the different leadership roles occupied by these athlete leaders, as well as their most important qualities. Furthermore we examined the impact of these leaders in affecting the efficacy beliefs of their team mates. In addition, we explored the role of team identification. These findings offer a starting point for the design of a continuous measurement of collective efficacy through observation.