In his 1973 paper ‘The Justification of Education’ R.S. Peters aspired to give a non-instrumental justification of education. Ever since, his so-called ‘transcendental argument’ has been under attack and most critics conclude that it does not work. They have, however, thrown the baby away with the bathwater, when they furthermore concluded that Peters’ justificatory project itself is futile. This paper takes another look at Peters’ justificatory project. As against a Kantian interpretation, it proposes an axiological-perfectionist interpretation to bring out the permanent importance of this project and suggests some possible strategies for its successful execution.