Arising from C. J. Phiel, C. A. Wilson, V. M.-Y. Lee & P. S. Klein 423, 435-439 (2003)A major unresolved issue in Alzheimer's disease is identifying the mechanisms that regulate proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) isozymes are thought to be important in this regulation. Phiel et al. proposed that GSK-3α, but not GSK-3β, controls production of amyloid. We analysed the proteolytic processing of mouse and human APP in mouse brain in vivo in five different genetic and viral models. Our data do not yield evidence for either GSK-3α-mediated or GSK-3β-mediated control of APP processing in brain in vivo.