ITEM METADATA RECORD
Title: Modulation of implants with dense, porous, and functionalized surfaces to promote osseointegration
Other Titles: Modulatie van implantaten met dense, poreuze, en gefunctionaliseerde oppervlakken ter bevordering van osseointegratie
Authors: Chaudhari, Amol; S0196971
Issue Date: 6-Jul-2012
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/* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}Implants of different sizesand shapes are inserted in a human body for improving structural or biologicalfunction. For improving structural functions of oral implants, integration in skeletaltissue (generally termed as osseointegration) is important. The surface of animplant plays an important role due to direct contact with its biological environmentduring healing and functioning. This project dealt with overall improvement ofimplant osseointegration. According to the current knowledge, osseointegrationof an implant depends on the implant¬ís surface topography and chemicalcomposition. Based on this knowledge, titanium surfaces were modified foroptimization of their bone regeneration potential and to improveosseointegration. Titanium surface modifications were carried out by silica based micro-porous andglass coatings, particulate titanium based porous and dense coatings, bonemorphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and polyphosphate functionalization. The thesisconsists of two parts: (1) the silica based material, amorphous microporoussilica (AMS) was evaluated for its potential use as growth factor (BMP-2) deliveryvehicle and (2) the other aforementioned surfaces (bioactive glass, particulatetitanium-based porous and dense coatings, BMP-2 and polyphosphatefunctionalization) were evaluated for their biological response in vitro and in vivo. Forthe evaluation of the potential of AMS as a protein delivery vehicle,interaction of bovine serum albumin and enhanced green fluoresecent proteinused as model proteins was determined. Specifically, adsorption and releasebehavior of the model proteins on and from AMS was determined by calorimetrictechniques. The release pattern was also confirmed by the real time qualitativeanalysis by fluorescence microscopy at the initial stages. These experimentssuggested the future use of AMS as a protein delivery vehicle with apossibility of controlling the protein release. As a next step, a new techniqueof micro positron emission tomography was explored to evaluate the in vivo release behavior of the proteinadsorbed on AMS. This technique can indeed be used for monitoring proteinmolecules and determine their concentration qualitatively in vivo. The in vivoprotein release pattern was in line with the in vitro release. As the secondary structure of the proteinmolecules in adsorbed state - as in the application of AMS as a deliveryvehicle - is important to understand its functional behavior in a broad sense,Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy was used. From these results, AMS wasfound to protect most of the protein¬ís secondary structure in the adsorbedstate.For the initial biological responseevaluation of the modified surfaces the approach of in vitro cell culture experiments was employed. Proliferation anddifferentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on the test surfaces wasstudied. Ca. 10-fold cell proliferation was observed on AMS and BMP-2immobilized on AMS and titanium along with the control titanium surface. Thecells could not survive on other surfaces. The differentiation of the cellstowards osteogenic lineage was observed for AMS surface with immobilized BMP-2.For AMS though, the cell response towards osteogenic differentiation wassimilar to the control. For evaluating the bone tissue response to modifiedsurfaces, in vivo experiments werecarried out in a rabbit model. The bone regeneration effect of AMS and BMP-2immobilized on AMS was similar to the control. On the other hand bio-activeglass resulted in a higher bone regeneration compared to the titanium surface. Nevertheless,this surface did not improve osteoconduction. Although porous titanium coatingsdid not improve the bone regeneration potential, these coatings supported bonegrowth into the pores. BMP-2 immobilized on titanium caused resorption of thehost bone initially in contact with the surface. For polyphosphatefunctionalized surfaces, poly phosphoric acid treatment supports bone growthover the implant surface and phosphorylated poly-saccharide treatment induceshigher bone regeneration compared to the control titanium surfaces.In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biological response to modified surfacesshowed contradictory results and need further investigation for bettercomprehension.
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Prosthetics
Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

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