Arsenic trioxide treatment decreases the oxygen consumption rate of tumor cells and radiosensitizes solid tumors
Diepart, Caroline × Karroum, Oussama Magat, Julie Feron, Olivier Verrax, Julien Calderon, Pedro Buc Grégoire, Vincent Leveque, Philippe Stockis, Julie Dauguet, Nicolas Jordan, Bénédicte F Gallez, Bernard #
Cancer Research vol:72 issue:2 pages:482-490
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an effective therapeutic against acute promyelocytic leukemia and certain solid tumors. Because As(2)O(3) inhibits mitochondrial respiration in leukemia cells, we hypothesized that As(2)O(3) might enhance the radiosensitivity of solid tumors by increasing tumor oxygenation [partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2))] via a decrease in oxygen consumption. Two murine models of radioresistant hypoxic cancer were used to study the effects of As(2)O(3). We measured pO(2) and the oxygen consumption rate in vivo by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and (19)fluorine-MRI relaxometry. Tumor perfusion was assessed by Patent blue staining. In both models, As(2)O(3) inhibited mitochondrial respiration, leading to a rapid increase in pO(2). The decrease in oxygen consumption could be explained by an observed decrease in glutathione in As(2)O(3)-treated cells, as this could increase intracellular reactive oxygen species that can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential. When tumors were irradiated during periods of As(2)O(3)-induced augmented oxygenation, radiosensitivity increased by 2.2-fold compared with control mice. Notably, this effect was abolished when temporarily clamped tumors were irradiated. Together, our findings show that As(2)O(3) acutely increases oxygen consumption and radiosensitizes tumors, providing a new rationale for clinical investigations of As(2)O(3) in irradiation protocols to treat solid tumors.